Русский язык
Перевод русских фразеологизмов на английский язык, Кузьмин С.С., 1977

Перевод русских фразеологизмов на английский язык, Кузьмин С.С., 1977

Перевод русских фразеологизмов на английский язык, Кузьмин С.С., 1977.

  Цель пособия — помочь студенту овладеть способами и средствами перевода русских фразеологизмов на английский язык, научить его анализировать процесс перевода в его динамике, преодолевать переводческие проблемы и профессионально разбираться в них, достигать адекватности перевода, учитывая эмоциональную окраску текста. В пособии анализируются трудные для перевода русские фразеологизмы, активизируются наиболее часто встречающиеся в печати русские фразеологизмы и их эквиваленты, предлагается система упражнений на практическое овладение переводом фразеологизмов.
Предназначено для студентов старших курсов переводческих факультетов институтов иностранных языков, а также аспирантов и переводчиков.

Some say, translation is art based on knowledge. Of course, an interpreter must have a good knowledge of the idioms of the two languages as well as take decisions to the best of his (her) knowledge and taste.

Suppose one has to interpret the idiom “метать громы и молнии (в чей-л. адрес)” which is rather frequently used in the Russian press. The interpreter who wants to make his translation idiomatic has to look up a dictionary of Russian idioms to be sure of the idiom’s meaning and then to find in a dictionary of English idioms an adequate English idiom. This process seems to be ideal but our interpreter soon realizes that translation begins where dictionaries end.

The interpreter would realize that the idiom “метать громы и молнии” may mean three things in one: (1) быть в страшном гневе, (2) выкрикивать бранные слова и (3) что подобные действия — “гнев” и “крик”— дело напрасное или неразумное.

So, it seems impossible to find a single English equivalent for all contexts. At first glance, however, it appears quite possible to find several English idioms and translate the Russian idiomatically ‘by parts’, that is,
(1) “быть в страшном гневе” may be expressed by ‘to be beside oneself
with rage' or ‘to go up into the air' (i.e. explode with rage) or ‘to fly off the handle’ (which may, sometimes, correspond to the Russian “он словно с цепи сорвался”);

Chapter 1
The starting mission is recognition. Translation begins where dictionaries end. Avoiding descriptive translation.
Chapter 2
Relations in pairs of statements. Translating phrases’ functions. Dot-the-i’s tendency. Synonymous statements and emphasis.
Chapter 3
Indices for interpretation: meaning and usage. Image as selected designation. Beware translating designations.
Chapter 4
Emotive-and-evaluating content of the information. Theory points in brief. Phrase and context signs’ combinations. Text unit overtones as an index for interpretation. Expressive-and-emotive and only expressive phrases. Approach to dual (only expressive) phrases. Negative exaggeration.
Chapter 5
Four undesirable connotations. The case of ‘a black sheep’, ‘a black dog’ and ‘a leopard’. Desirable or undesirable? Restoration before translation.
Chapter 6
Sarcasm: indications, conditions. Means of conveying sarcasm. Irony: manifestations, conditions. Means of proper divergency. Principle of transformation. Play on components and idiomatic background. The case of a ‘byword’, a ‘town talk’ and ‘notorious’ things.
Chapter 7
Additions: internal and external. Adverbial modifiers as additions. Phraseological level and allusions. Attributive additions: specifying and intensifying. Greater intensification. Word-combinations as additions. Utilization of abilities. Weakening and litotes. Possessive pronouns. Puns. Types and aims of innovation.
Chapter 8
Proverbs’ figurativeness and its means: rhyme, structures, phrases, colloquialisms, rhythm, transpositions, metaphorical explanation. Translating epigrams. Classification. Translating by English and translators’ equivalents. Innovation as means of adequacy. Complex utilizing. Some epigrams. Innovation: lexical and grammatical, complicated. Two-part proverbs.
Bibliography References.