Строительные сооружения, Сборник текстов и упражнений к практическим занятиям по английскому языку, Косинова Л.В., Солодовникова И.В., 2011.
Содержит неадаптированные, оригинальные тексты, освещающие новейшие методы сооружения строительных объектов, предназначенные для развития навыков чтения и перевода научно-технической литературы по строительству.
Для студентов строительных специальностей очной формы обучения.
A tunnel is an underground passage. The definition of what constitutes a tunnel is not universally agreed upon. However, in general tunnels are at least twice as long as they are wide. In addition, they should be completely enclosed on all sides, save for the openings at each end. Some civic planners define a tunnel as 0.1 miles (0.16 bn) in length or longer, while anything shorter than this should be called an underpass or a chute. For example, the underpass beneath Yahata Station in Kitakyushu, Japan is only 0.08 miles (0.13 bn) long and therefore should not be considered a tunnel.
A tunnel may be for pedestrians or cyclists, for general road traffic, for motor vehicles only, for rail traffic, or for a canal. Some are aqueducts, constructed purely for carrying water — for consumption, for hydroelectric purposes or as sewers — while others cany other services such as telecommunications cables. There are even tunnels designed as wildlife crossings for European badgers and other endangered species. Some secret tunnels have also been made as a method of entrance or escape from an area, such as the Cu Chi Tunnels or the tunnels connecting the Gaza Strip to Egypt. Some tunnels are not for transport at all but are fortifications, for example Mittelwerk and Cheyenne Mountain.
Tunnels are dug in different kinds of grounds, from soft sand to hard rock. The way of digging is chosen by the type of ground. There are two additional ways of digging: quarry and “cut and cover”. In quarry, the tunnel path is drilled in a horizontal way. This system requires a deep tunnel that is built in a film rock. In the “cut and cover" system, a tunnel is dug in the ground and afterwards a roof is built above the tunnel. This system fits tunnels that are close to the ground like road tunnels and infrastructure.
Text 1. Tunnel
Text 2. History of Tunneling
Text 3. Tunnel construction methods
Text 4. The Channel Tunnel
Text 5. Bridges Information
Text 6. Supplement. Bridges of St. Petersburg.