Трудности английского языка для русских, Винокурова Л.П., 1948.
The fourth edition of the present book has been revised and enlarged in accordance with the suggestions made by the teachers of English of the Leningrad Pedagogical Institute for Foreign Languages. More attention has been paid to specific difficulties of English for Russians, especially in such parts as Word-Order, Concord, Uses of Tenses, Articles, as well as in Analysis and Verbals. An attempt has been made to point out the peculiarities of English analysis from the point of view of Russian students. A great many exercises have been added to illustrate the rules. The key to the exercises has also been added.
Peculiarities of the Parts of Speech in Modern English.
Though words in Modern English are generally classified into traditional parts of speech, i. e. nouns, pronouns, adjectives, numerals, verbs, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions and interjections, they have developed a peculiar feature of their own. Owing to the loss of the majority of inflexions, Modern English, a highly analytic language, is characterized by the ease of conversion, i. e. the ease with which words without any distinctive endings pass from one class into another. One and the same word can stand for various parts of speech, and its classification depends on its function and meaning rather than form. The function of a word is seen from its position in a sentence; for example, the word 'round’ can be used as:
Adj. There was a round table in the middle of the room, (круглый) Prep. Draw a circle round a given centre, (вокруг)
Adv. Flies were flying round and round, (кругом)
Verb. Vasco de Gama was the first to round the Cape of Good.