Practical English Usage, Third edition, Michael Swan, 2005.
I am grateful to all the people who have helped me with the preparation of this third edition. A large number of teachers in different countries were kind enough to respond to an enquiry asking how they felt Practical English Usage could be improved: their feedback was extremely helpful, and I am very much in their debt. I am also greatly indebted to David Baker, whose comments and suggestions have added very significantly to the accuracy and clarity of the book, and to Hideo Hibino and Kenji Kashino, who have contributed valuable advice on specific problems. Many other teachers and students - too many to name -have taken the trouble to suggest ways in which particular entries could be improved; their input has benefited the book considerably.
Also, as well and too.
Also, as well and too have similar meanings, but they do not go in the same position in clauses. Also usually goes with the verb, in mid-position (see 24); as well and too usually go at the end of a clause. As well is less common in AmE.
She not only sings; she also plays the piano.
She not only sings; she plays the piano as well She not only sings; she plays the piano too.
As well and too do not go at the beginning of a clause. Also can go at the beginning of a clause to give more importance to a new piece of information. It’s a nice house, but it's very small Also, it needs a lot of repairs.
These words can refer to different parts of a clause, depending on the meaning. Consider the sentence We work on Saturdays as well This can mean three different things:
a (Other people work on Saturdays, and) we work on Saturdays as well, b (We do other things on Saturdays, and) we work on Saturdays as well, c (We work on other days, and) we work on Saturdays as well.
When we speak, we show the exact meaning by stressing the word or expression that also / as well / too refers to.
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