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Understanding and Using English Grammar. Betty Azar. 2002

Understanding and Using English Grammar. Betty Azar. 2002

Название: Understanding and Using English Grammar.

Автор: Betty Azar.
2002

   Understanding and Using English Grammar is a developmental skills text for intermediate to advanced students of English as a second or foreign language. While focusing on grammar, it promotes the development of all language skills in a variety of ways. It functions principally as a classroom teaching text but also serves as a comprehensive reference text for students and teachers
The eclectic approach and abundant variety of exercise material remain the same as in the earlier editions, but each new edition incorporates new ways and means. In particular:
The communicative aspects of Understanding and Using English Grammar are more fully developed and explicit in the third edition. There are numerous "real communication" opportunities for the teacher to exploit. The text often uses the students' own life experiences as context and regularly introduces topics of interest to stimulate the free expression of ideas in structured as well as open discussions. The text supports the view of many experienced teachers that grammar-based and communicative approaches are not mutually exclusive, but rather mutually supportive and can co-exist in the same language program, even in the same class, even in the same lesson.

   The second edition of UUEG was thoroughly reviewed by twenty-five ESL/EFL professionals. Their reviews were outstandingly helpful in their insights and suggestions. I studied the reviews with great care, and they greatly influenced the revision in matters large and small. I could not, unfortunately, make every change and addition that every reviewer sought (not without writing a 1000-page book—which my publisher would definitely frown upon!). I wish to express my heartfelt thanks for the care and thought these colleagues put into their reviews. They are Catherine Sajna, Hawaii Pacific University, English Foundations Program; Brian White, Lakeview Learning Center/ALSP; Anne Albarelli-Siegfried, North Harris Community College; Akabi Danielan, Glendale Career College; M. Cristina Parsons, Pueblo High School; Peter Jarvis, Pace University; Cheri Boyer, University of Arizona, CESL; Molly Burns, Wisconsin ESL Language Institute; Molly McGrath, Hunter College, IELI; James Burke, El Paso Community College; Deborah Healey, Oregon State University, ELI; Dan Manolescu, Adelphi University, Berlitz on Campus Language Institute for English; Gerald Lee Boyd, Northern Virginia Community College; Karen Richelli-Kolbert, Manhattanville College, School of Education; Marjorie Friedman, Eckerd College, ELS Language Center; Natalie Gast, Customized Language Skills Training; Anna Krauthammer, Touro College; Russell Hirsch,Touro College; Stacy Hagen, Edmonds Community College, Intensive ESL; Lida Baker, University of California, Los-Angeles; Susan Kash-Brown, Southeast Community College.

CONTENTS
PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Chapter 1 OVERVIEW OF VERB TENSES
1-1 THE SIMPLETENSES
1-2 THE PROGRESSIVE TENSES
1-3 THE PERFECTTENSES
1-4 THE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE TENSES
1-5 SUMMARY CHART OFVERBTENSES
1-6 SPELLING OF -ING AND -ED FORMS
Chapter 2 PRESENT AND PAST, SIMPLE AND PROGRESSIVE
2-1 SIMPLE PRESENT
2-2 PRESENT PROGRESSIVE
2-3 STATIVE VERBS
2-4 AM/IS/ARE BEING + ADJECTIVE
2-5 REGULARAND IRREGULAR VERBS
2-6 REGULAR VERBS: PRONUNCIATION OF -ED ENDINGS
2-7 IRREGULAR VERBS: AN ALPHABETICAL LIST
2-8 TROUBLESOME VERBS: RAISE/RISE, SET/SIT, LAY/LIE
2-9 SIMPLE PAST
2-10 PAST PROGRESSIVE
2-11 USING PROGRESSIVE VERBS WITH ALWAYSTO COMPLAIN ,
2-12 USING EXPRESSIONS OF PLACE WITH PROGRESSIVE VERBS
Chapter 3 PERFECT AND PERFECT PROGRESSIVE TENSES
3-1 PRESENT PERFECT
3-2 PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE
3-3 PAST PERFECT
3-4 PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE
Chapter 4 FUTURE TIME
4-1 SIMPLE FUTURE: WILL AND BE GOING TO
4-2 WILL vs. BE GOING TO
4-3 EXPRESSING THE FUTURE INTIME CLAUSES
4-4 USING THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE AND THE SIMPLE PRESENT TO EXPRESS FUTURE TIME
4-5 FUTURE PROGRESSrVE
4-6 FUTURE PERFECT
4-7 FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE
Chapter 5 ADVERB CLAUSES OF TIME AND REVIEW OF VERB TENSES
5-1 ADVERB CLAUSES OFTIME: FORM
5-2 USING ADVERB CLAUSES TO SHOWTIME RELATIONSHIPS
Chapter 6 SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT
6-1 FINAL -S/-ES: USE, PRONUNCIATION, AND SPELLING
6-2 BASIC SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT
6-3 SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT: USING EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY
6-4 SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT: USING THERE + BE
6-5 SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT: SOME IRREGULARITIES
Chapter 7 NOUNS
7-1 REGULAR AND IRREGULAR PLURAL NOUNS
7-2 POSSESSIVE NOUNS
7-3 USING NOUNS AS MODIFIERS
7-4 COUNT AND NONCOUNT NOUNS
7-5 NONCOUNT NOUNS
7-6 SOME COMMON NONCOUNT NOUNS
7-7 BASIC ARTICLE USAGE
7-8 GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE
7-9 EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY
7-10 USING A FEW AND FEW; A LITTLE AND LITTLE
7-11 USING OF IN EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY
7-12 ALL (OF) AND BOTH (OF)
7-13 SINGULAR EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY: ONE, EACH, EVERY
Chapter 8 PRONOUNS
8-1 PERSONAL PRONOUNS
8-2 PERSONAL PRONOUNS: AGREEMENT WITH GENERIC NOUNS AND INDEFINITE PRONOUNS
8-3 PERSONAL PRONOUNS: AGREEMENT WITH COLLECTIVE NOUNS
8-4 REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS
8-5 USING YOU, ONE, AND THEY AS IMPERSONAL PRONOUNS
8-6 FORMS OF OTHER
8-7 COMMON EXPRESSIONS WITH OTHER
Chapter 9 MODALS, PART 1
9-1 INTRODUCTION
9-2 POLITE QUESTIONS WITH /ASTHE SUBJECT
9-3 POLITE QUESTIONS WITH YOU ASTHE SUBJECT
9-4 POLITE REQUESTS WITH WOULD YOU MIND
9-5 EXPRESSING NECESSITY: MUST, HAVE TO, HAVE GOT TO
9-6 LACK OF NECESSITY AND PROHIBITION: HAVE TO AND MUST INTHE NEGATIVE
9-7 ADVISABILITY: SHOULD, OUGHT TO, HAD BETTER
9-8 THE PAST FORM OF SHOULD
9-9 EXPECTATIONS: BE SUPPOSED TO
9-10 MAKING SUGGESTIONS: LET'S, WHY DON'T, SHALL I/WE
9-11 MAKING SUGGESTIONS: COULDvs. SHOULD
Chapter 10 MODALS, PART 2
10-1 DEGREES OF CERTAINTY: PRESENTTIME
10-2 DEGREES OF CERTAINTY: PRESENTTIME NEGATIVE
10-3 DEGREES OF CERTAINTY: PASTTIME
10-4 DEGREES OF CERTAINTY: FUTURE TIME
10-5 PROGRESSIVE FORMS OF MODALS
10-6 ABILITY: C4NAND COULD
10-7 USING WOULDTO EXPRESS A REPEATED ACTION IN THE PAST
10-8 EXPRESSING PREFERENCE: WOULD RATHER
10-9 COMBINING MODALS WITH PHRASAL MODALS
10-10 SUMMARY CHART OF MODALS AND SIMILAR EXPRESSIONS
Chapter 11 THE PASSIVE
11-1 FORMFNGTHE PASSIVE
11-2 USFNG THE PASSIVE
11-3 INDIRECT OBJECTS USED AS PASSIVE SUBJECTS
11-4 THE PASSIVE FORM OF MODALS AND PHRASAL MODALS
11-5 STATIVE PASSIVE
11-6 COMMON STATIVE PASSrVE VERBS + PREPOSITIONS
11-7 THE PASSIVE WITH GET
11-8 PARTICIPIAL ADJECTTVES
Chapter 12 NOUN CLAUSES
12-1 INTRODUCTION
12-2 NOUN CLAUSES BEGINNING WITH A QUESTION WORD
12-3 NOUN CLAUSES BEGINNING WITH WHETHER OR IF
12-4 QUESTIONWORDS FOLLOWED BY INFINITIVES
12-5 NOUN CLAUSES BEGPNNING WITH THAT
12-6 QUOTED SPEECH
12-7 REPORTED SPEECH: VERB FORMS IN NOUN CLAUSES
12-8 USING THE SUBJUNCTIVE IN NOUN CLAUSES
12-9 USFNG -EVER WORDS
Chapter 13 ADJECTIVE CLAUSES
13-1 INTRODUCTION
13-2 ADJECTIVE CLAUSE PRONOUNS USED AS THE SUBJECT
13-3 ADJECTIVE CLAUSE PRONOUNS USED AS THE OBJECT OF A VERB
13-4 ADJECTIVE CLAUSE PRONOUNS USED AS THE OBJECT OF A PREPOSITION
13-5 USUAL PATTERNS OF ADJECITVE CLAUSES
13-6 USFNG WHOSE
13-7 USING WHERE IN ADJECTIVE CLAUSES
13-8 USING WHEN IN ADJECTIVE CLAUSES
13-9 USFNG ADJECTIVE CLAUSES TO MODIFY PRONOUNS
13-10 PUNCTUATING ADJECTIVE CLAUSES
13-11 USFNG EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY FN ADJECTIVE CLAUSES
13-12 USFNG NOUN + OFWHICH
13-13 USING WHICH TO MODIFY A WHOLE SENTENCE
13-14 REDUCING ADJECTIVE CLAUSES TO ADJECTIVE PHRASES: INTRODUCTION
13-15 CHANGING AN ADJECTIVE CLAUSE TO AN ADJECTIVE PHRASE
Chapter 14 GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES, PART 1
14-1 GERUNDS: INTRODUCTION
14-2 USING GERUNDS AS THE OBJECTS OF PREPOSITIONS
14-3 COMMON PREPOSITION COMBINATIONS FOLLOWED BY GERUNDS
14-4 COMMON VERBS FOLLOWED BY GERUNDS
14-5 GO + GERUND
14-6 SPECIAL EXPRESSIONS FOLLOWED BY -ING
14-7 COMMON VERBS FOLLOWED BY INFINITIVES
14-8 COMMON VERBS FOLLOWED BY EITHER INFINITIVES OR GERUNDS
14-9 REFERENCE LIST OF VERBS FOLLOWED BY GERUNDS
14-10 REFERENCE LIST OFVERBS FOLLOWED BY INFINITIVES
14-11 IT + INFINITIVE; GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES AS SUBJECTS
Chapter 15 GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES, PART 2
15-1 ESTFINITrVE OF PURPOSE: IN ORDER TO
15-2 ADJECTIVES FOLLOWED BY INFINITIVES
15-3 USING INFINITIVES WITH TOO AND ENOUGH
15-4 PASSIVE AND PAST FORMS OF INFINnTVES AND GERUNDS
15-5 USING GERUNDS OR PASSIVE INFINnTVES FOLLOWING NEED
15-6 USING A POSSESSrVETO MODIFY A GERUND
15-7 USING VERBS OF PERCEPTION
15-8 USING THE SIMPLE FORM AFTER LET AND HELP
15-9 USING CAUSATIVE VERBS: MAKE, HAVE, GET
Chapter 16 COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS
16-1 PARALLEL STRUCTURE
16-2 USING PAIRED CONJUNCTIONS: BOTH AND; NOT ONLY  BUT ALSO; EITHER OR; NEITHER NOR
16-3 COMBINING INDEPENDENT CLAUSES WITH COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS
Chapter 17 ADVERB CLAUSES
17-1 INTRODUCTION
17-2 USING ADVERB CLAUSES TO SHOW CAUSE AND EFFECT
17-3 EXPRESSING CONTRAST (UNEXPECTED RESULT): USING EVENTHOUGH
17-4 SHOWING DIRECT CONTRAST: WHILE AND WHEREAS
17-5 EXPRESSING CONDITIONS ПчГ ADVERB CLAUSES: /F-CLAUSES
17-6 ADVERB CLAUSES OF CONDITION: USING WHETHER OR NOT AND EVEN IF 
17-7 ADVERB CLAUSES OF CONDITION: USING IN CASE AND INTHE EVENTTHAT
17-8 ADVERB CLAUSES OF CONDITION: USING UNLESS
17-9 ADVERB CLAUSES OF CONDITION: USING ONLY IF
Chapter 18 REDUCTION OF ADVERB CLAUSES TO MODIFYING ADVERBIAL PHRASES
18-1 INTRODUCTION
18-2 CHANGING TIME CLAUSES TO MODIFYING ADVERBIAL PHRASES
18-3 EXPRESSING THE IDEA OF "DURING THE SAME TIME" IN MODIFYING ADVERBIAL PHRASES
18-4 EXPRESSING CAUSE AND EFFECT IN MODIFYING ADVERBIAL PHRASES
18-5 USING UPON + -ING IN MODIFYING ADVERBIAL PHRASES
Chapter 19 CONNECTIVES THAT EXPRESS CAUSE AND EFFECT, CONTRAST, AND CONDITION
19-1 USING BECAUSE OF AND DUETO
19-2 USING TRANSITIONS TO SHOW CAUSE AND EFFECT: THEREFORE AND CONSEQUENTLY
19-3 SUMMARY OF PATTERNS AND PUNCTUATION
19-4 OTHER WAYS OF EXPRESSING CAUSE AND EFFECT:
SUCH THAT AND SO THAT
19-5 EXPRESSING PURPOSE: USING SO THAT
19-6 SHOWING CONTRAST (UNEXPECTED RESULT)
19-7 SHOWING DIRECT CONTRAST
19-8 EXPRESSING CONDITIONS: USING OTHERWISE AND OR (ELSE)
19-9 SUMMARY OF CONNECTIVES: CAUSE AND EFFECT, CONTRAST, CONDITION
Chapter 20 CONDITIONAL SENTENCES AND WISHES
20-1 OVERVIEW OF BASIC VERB FORMS USED IN CONDITIONAL SENTENCES
20-2 TRUE INTHE PRESENT OR FUTURE
20-3 UNTRUE (CONTRARYTO FACT) INTHE PRESENT OR FUTURE
20-4 UNTRUE (CONTRARYTO FACT) INTHE PAST
20-5 USING PROGRESSIVE VERB FORMS IN CONDITIONAL SENTENCES
20-6 USING "MIXED TIME" IN CONDITIONAL SENTENCES
20-7 OMITTING IF
20-8 IMPLIED CONDITIONS
20-9 USING AS IF/AS THOUGH
20-10 VERB FORMS FOLLOWING WISH
20-11 USING WOULDTO MAKE WISHES ABOUTTHE FUTURE
Appendix SUPPLEMENTARY GRAMMAR UNITS
Unit A: BASIC GRAMMAR TERMINOLOGY
A-l SUBJECTS, VERBS, AND OBJECTS
A-2 PREPOSITIONS AND PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES
A-3 ADJECTIVES
A-4 ADVERBS
A-5 THE VERB BE
A-6 LINKING VERBS
Unit B: QUESTIONS
B-l FORMS OFYES/NO AND INFORMATION QUESTIONS
B-2 QUESTION WORDS
B-3 SHORTENED YES/NO QUESTIONS
B-4 NEGATIVE QUESTIONS
B-5 TAG QUESTIONS
Unit C: CONTRACTIONS
UnitD: NEGATIVES
D-l USING NOT AND OTHER NEGATIVE WORDS
D-2 AVOIDING DOUBLE NEGATIVES
D-3 BEGINNING A SENTENCE WITH A NEGATIVE WORD
Unit E: PREPOSITION COMBINATIONS
E PREPOSITION COMBINATIONS WITH ADJECTIVES AND VERBS
Unit F: CONNECTIVES TO GIVE EXAMPLES AND TO CONTINUE AN IDEA
F-l CONNECTrVESTO GIVE EXAMPLES
F-2 CONNECTIVESTO CONTINUETHE SAME IDEA
Unit G: VERB FORM REVIEW EXERCISES
ANSWER KEY
INDEX

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